Therapeutic Areas for the Treatment of Addictions in Cuba

The treatment program for drug addiction is divided into 4 main areas of work with the patient

Therapeutic Area
Directed by specialists in psychiatry and clinical psychology, in this area the problems that each young person presents are dealt with, with the conviction that the drug-dependent are patients and not people with moral weaknesses. These specialists take into account the psychotherapeutic resources provided by the different schools in the planning of the objectives established in each case.

Only pharmacological treatment is used to control withdrawal symptoms and anti-depressant and antipsychotic anxiolytics are used.
Although the greatest emphasis is placed on individual psychotherapy, the mechanisms implicit in group psychotherapy, film debate, psychodrama, music therapy and pictography are exploited, constituting procedures of inestimable value in the treatment and evolution of patients, as shown by the modification of their projections in the drawing, as the treatment progresses.

Taking into account that these conditions are considered among those with the most tragic repercussion on family life, the work with the family acquires an extraordinary importance, since it participates in innumerable functions, from the satisfaction of the affective and material needs of its members, the establishment of positive patterns of interpersonal relationships, up to the stimulation of the creativity of the members. For example, the study carried out in our institution, with 80 patients, of which 70% have alterations in family dynamics due to difficulties in communication or emotional abandonment in the early stages of life.

Another aspect of notable influence is the lack of information from parents on the subject of drug dependence, which prevented them from adequately educating their children on this topic.

One of the primary objectives in working with the family is to guide it with respect to the correct approach to the disease, rehabilitation and social reintegration of the patient.

The didactic psychotherapy is the group of educational activities aimed at incorporating a series of knowledge about drugs ranging from the bio-psychosocial action of drugs, its consequences, to the social reintegration of the addict in all its manifestations, through personality aspects , family and addiction, as well as the program that each one performs, taking into account their individuality, to face their social reintegration. All the activities are aimed at complementing the objectives outlined with each patient at the beginning of the treatment.

Alternative therapy of acupuncture and relaxation, designed to reduce the symptoms of anxiety, depression and insomnia during withdrawal, is a complement in the treatment, as well as in the case of relaxation, a way to eliminate future recurrences that may manifest after fulfill the attention scheme.

With the emergence and development of rehabilitation psychiatric patients, physical culture found another aspect of development in the treatment of drug-dependent patients, with the practice of physical exercises, as occurs in centers of total or partial hospitalization of psychiatric patients. Using the positive experiences obtained with the application of this alternative treatment, it was established as a therapeutic modality and became part of the multidisciplinary approach in the care of drug addicts patients, which aims to achieve the following objectives:
  1. · Qualitatively and quantitatively develop the ability to work.
  2. · Rescue the feeling of companionship and community, attenuated by this disease that tends more and more to isolation.
  3. · Improve somatic characteristics, which is manifested progressively in the practice of physical exercises aimed at controlling and improving the low weight, typical of the consumption of the toxic and give way to a progressive physical development.
  4. · Contribute with new healthy ways to modify the lifestyle of these patients.
To achieve these objectives, 20% of the therapeutic time is allocated as part of multiple-focus therapy, in addition to contributing to the use of free time.

Area of educational and occupational alternatives
Education is oriented on the basis of daily life, the daily analysis of the activities carried out, their objectives and achievements, as well as the different attitudes that can be manifested in the daily events, and the influence of the group with constructive criticism is revealed in the face of negative attitudes and the encouragement of positive ones, which facilitates the incorporation of new behavior patterns.

The professional training includes intellectual activities that allow the young person to exercise the capacities affected by the use of the toxic, they are developed in centers of higher education or specialized entities and they have a theoretical-practical character, among them are computer courses, economics, marketing, languages ??and others.

Work training is one in which the patient tests their abilities, aptitudes and behavior through work, and allows them to orient themselves in most cases, towards their future work activity (mechanical, electronic, etc.).

It is carried out in work centers of the community itself, where the required discipline and interaction with the collective of workers is maintained. The above favors the incorporation of a series of values ??that result in a positive way in its rehabilitation. These activities are controlled by the therapeutic team, which in turn feeds back, for their subsequent work with the attitudes they show, whether individual or collective, according to their characteristics.

Ergotherapy is an important component of psychiatry and TC, which allows taking the multidisciplinary team to observations on the behavior of patients before work. This activity is aimed at achieving emotional control through the development of tasks or occupational activities that involve patience and perseverance.

In our CT there are agricultural activities (orchards, gardening, handicrafts, crafts, pyrography, decoration with ceramic objects, among others). All these activities are part of the educational-therapeutic component that characterizes ergotherapy. These activities, along with recreation, are in turn an option for the use of free time.
Area of self-government
As its name indicates it is an element in the life of the community, composed of several patients who, in the responsibilities of president, responsible for physical culture, recreation and social relations, contribute, together with the therapeutic team, in the decision-making, control and other activities that govern the operation of the TC.
All the aforementioned elements constitute fundamental pillars on which the treatment of drug dependence rests, in which aspects of high human significance predominate, such as the satisfaction of putting effort into providing health to the ill man, which is equivalent to converting the drug-dependent in an individual useful to his family and society.

An example of this is the participation in cultural activities, sports, collective birthdays, in the valuation of collective and individual stimuli to those who excel in the work, in the fulfillment of goals and in the incorporation to the different programmed activities. The TC also intervenes with its criteria in the application of disciplinary measures determined by the therapeutic team. It constitutes the element that facilitates the necessary fusion between the professional, technical team and the patient community.

The president is in charge of directing weekly the meetings of the TC in which a detailed analysis is made of all its operation with its individual, collective, administrative and individual and collective recognition of such work.

Health and tourism complementary area
Tourism and health are two closely related aspects. In our approach the link between health and tourism is considered as a binomial of constant interaction, and the use of the cultural resources of the environment is considered: museums, theaters, cinemas and others in which it is enjoyed depending on the evolution and the capacity of self-regulation acquired during the treatment process; hence, these stimuli, initially, are directed by the CT and more.

Further, they are incorporated with self-regulation and / or community dynamics. The natural resources of the city of Holguín are also used as elements of therapeutic interaction. Nearby are two picturesque cities: Bañes and Gibara and the tourist complex of Guardalavaca, one of the most beautiful of the Cuban archipelago. Rightly, Guardalavaca is considered a paradise within another.

Lovers of hiking and horseback riding can enjoy appropriate places very close to the beach. El Saltón, tourist center located in the historic and hospitable province of Santiago de Cuba, offers its nature and mountainous environment with possibilities for hiking, horseback riding, visits to historic sites and thermal baths. All this makes it an ideal place for reuniting and treating patients.
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Role of the Family in the Rehabilitation of the Addicted Patient
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